Sunday, February 26, 2017

Find the Difference

This is great, quick post-reading activity which you can do with students. I got this idea from Annabelle Allen's blog (if you are not reading her blog, bookmark it!), specifically from her post on "Milking Movie Talks." Bob Patrick and I had done a Movie Talk last week, and I was looking for some new novel post-reading activities to do with it. Annabelle's post was perfect for what I was looking!

"Find the Difference" is exactly what students will do: find the differences in a reading which you have been reviewing!


Directions

  1. Type up a current reading, and make vocabulary word changes to it. It is important that students are quite familiar with the reading. In many ways, you do not want to completely change the reading - you do not want more differences than similarities.
  2. Print up reading.
Classroom
  1. Students will need a highlighter for this activity.
  2. Hand out a reading to each student. You can pair them up if you want to focus on collaborative work.
  3. Explain that students are to find the differences in the reading from the real story. Tell students HOW MANY differences for which they will be looking. This will be very helpful for students.
  4. When students find a difference, they are to highlight the word(s) in the story. 
  5. Review the answers with students. I projected the story onto a whiteboard and had students come up and underline the difference.
  6. As an extension, you can ask students to replace the differences with the correct word(s) in the target language.
Observations
  1. I was surprised at how quickly students were able to get through this activity. Because it was a reading with which students were familiar, (due to being a Movie Talk and having gone over it a few different ways), it did not take long.
  2. Because I had told them ahead of time how many differences there were, students paid closer attention to the reading.
  3. This is another great way for students to interact with comprehensible messages. 
  4. Students were becoming tired of this story so this activity gave the reading some novelty!
Example in Latin:

Knock Knock Movie Talk reading
Ecce vir! Vir in spondā considit. Rē verā, vir totum diem agere vult in spondā. Rē verā, vir cenāre vult in spondā!

Subito, aliquis ianuam pulsat. Vir ianuam aperit, sed rē verā, nemo adest. Quod nemo adest, vir ianuam claudit. Aliquis iterum ianuam pulsat. Rē verā, vir totum diem agere vult in spondā. Rē verā, vir cenare vult in spondā! Vir iterum ianuam aperit, sed rē verā, nemo adest.

Vir iterum ianuam claudit, et iterum in spondā considit. Subito, aliquis iterum ianuam pulsat. vir ianuam non aperit, quod totum diem agere vult in spondā! Vir cenare vult in spondā!
Iterum aliquis ianuam pulsat! Vir valde iratus est!

Vir irate ianuam aperit. Rē verā, nemo adest! Vir ianuam claudit, sed rē verā, non in spondā considit. Aliquis ianuam pulsat. Vir iterum ianuam aperit, sed rē verā, nemo adest...

Find the Difference reading (changes are italicized here for your purpose)
Eheu vir! Vir in lecto considit. Rē verā, vir totum diem agere vult in Germania. Rē verā, vir aspicere televisionem vult in Germania!
Subito, aliquis ianuam pulsat. Vir ianuam aperit, sed rē verā, parvus catulus adest. Quod parvus catulus adest, vir ianuam claudit. Aliquis iterum ianuam pulsat. Rē verā, vir totum diem agere vult in lecto. Rē verā, vir cenare vult in lecto! Vir iterum ianuam aperit, sed rē verā, infans adest.
Vir iterum ianuam claudit, et iterum in spondā crustulum consumit. Subito, aliquis iterum ianuam pulsat. Vir ianuam non aperit, quod totum diem agere vult in spondā! Vir cenare vult in armario! Aliquis iterum ianuam pulsat! Vir valde laetus est!
Vir irate ianuam aperit. Rē verā, magnus porcus adest! Vir ianuam claudit, sed rē verā, non in ursa considit. Aliquis ianuam pulsat. Vir iterum ianuam aperit, sed rē verā, nemo adest…

Monday, February 20, 2017

4-Word Picture Stories

This is an activity which I got from Bob Patrick (and I don't know from whom - if anyone - he got this idea). Bob and I both teach all nine sections of Latin 1 at our school. I am the one in charge of creating lesson plans, and as we were starting a new chapter of Brando Brown Canem Vult, I was wanting to pre-teach some new vocabulary. My idea was for students to give students four new vocabulary words and for them to draw a visual representation of three of the four new vocabulary words. Bob took it one step further and had students draw a 4-frame cartoon involving the 4 new words and to create a very short "story" in Latin as captions for the cartoon - students could only use known words in their story. I really liked this idea and put my spin on the activity. 

For this activity, I gave students seven words, of which they had to choose at least four to use (four of the seven words were completely new, and three were words which I wanted to recycle from the past, because I did not feel like many had truly acquired them). Like Bob, I then had them illustrate a 4-frame cartoon which incorporated those four words and to write a short 4-sentence minimum "story" in Latin which used those 4 words. Again, they could only use words which they knew and learned in class, i.e., no Google Translate! There had to be a minimum of one sentence per frame, but students could write more if they wanted.

I then took a number of their cartoons/stories and edited them for grammar errors. After this, I scanned their pictures and created a Google Slides presentation to show them over the next few days as warmups (3-4/day). The scanning and creating Google Slides presentations did take some time and effort to complete. 

Examples
The seven words, from which students had to select at least four, were: 
  1. castellum - castle/fort
  2. prandet - eats lunch
  3. custodit - is guarding
  4. fingit se - pretends that he/she
  5. catulus - puppy
  6. petit - heads for
  7. dux - leader






Observations
  1. Because these stories were written by students (and edited for grammar by me), the stories were completely comprehensible to them, because they were level-appropriate.
  2. Students really enjoyed seeing each other's stories. Many liked that their story had been picked to show!
  3. Many students enjoyed the freedom of choice in choosing which words to use, because it allowed them to be creative.
  4. Because students had to incorporate at least four of the seven words into their stories, this allowed for LOTS of repetitions of words, since every story had some degree of commonality of vocabulary. 
  5. Even though students had to use four of the seven words in their stories, no student had the same exact story, so it allowed for LOTS of creativity.
  6. Because the stories were short (usually 4-6 sentences), it allowed for novelty and kept students engaged.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Focusing on the Basics of CI

A few weeks ago, Bob Patrick, Lauren Watson, and I presented a full-day CI in-service for the world language teachers at Lauren's school. During the lunch break, a teacher approached me about how I assessed students using Comprehensible Input. In some ways, I hate this question, not because it deals with assessments, but because the way in which I assess now is so different from the traditional methods. My formative/summative assessments are:
  • completely unannounced but only given when I feel that at least 80% of students will score 80% or higher. In most instances, I will wait until I feel that 90% will score 90% or higher.
  • based on standards-based grading.
  • never longer than 10-minutes in length, because I am only addressing particular standards at a time. I do not need pages of an assessment for students to demonstrate proficiency in a standard.
  • given with the idea that students can do a re-assessment if they (or I) are not pleased with their scores.
In explaining how I assessed students, I could feel this teacher starting to become overwhelmed and to back off a bit from CI, because it sounded like one had to adopt this method in becoming a CI teacher and that this style of assessment was a non-negotiable for a CI classroom.

With someone who is curious about CI or new to the topic, I think that we who are experienced with CI need to be very careful how we present the topic. Many times we start to talk about topics and practices which we ourselves implement in our classrooms that enhance CI but big picture are not exclusive to CI.
  • Yes, I have gone deskless, and it has greatly enhanced my classroom environment, BUT a deskless classroom is not necessary at all for establishing community and lowering the affective filter. For a number of years, my CI classroom had desks, and there are times now where I do miss students having desks.
  • Yes, I have "untextbooked" and am no longer using a textbook, BUT going off the textbook is not a requirement of a CI curriculum. One can deliver understandable messages and apply CI principles to the teaching of a textbook, doing a hybrid approach. It is not easy to facilitate, but many have done it.
  • Yes, I now implement standards-based grading (as opposed to traditional grading), and I am seeing its benefits in my students, BUT you will not find mention of standards based-grading specifically among Krashen's Five Hypotheses of CI (although standards-based grading does cause a teacher to look at teaching differently). One can use standards-based grading in a non-CI classroom.
  • Yes, I allow students to do unlimited retakes (with remediation though) in order for them to demonstrate proficiency in a particular standard, BUT this is not considered a non-negotiable in a CI classroom. To me, student-retakes are an individual teacher decision, but I will say that having a safety net of retakes does lower the affective filter in students when assessing.
I will say that those things which I have stated above do help contribute to and greatly enhance a Comprehensible Input learning environment, but a Comprehensible Input learning environment can exist WITHOUT those things.

When beginning to implement CI into one's classroom, I always suggest baby steps, taking things one step at a time. Begin to major on the majors first, and leave minoring on the minors for later. I have been using CI for four years now, and it is only this year where I have gone deskless, untextbooked, and implemented standards-based grading. I will also say that I felt like I was finally ready to facilitate these changes to my curriculum. 

Let us be sure to focus on the basics of CI when presenting the subject to those who are curious. So many times we can get sidetracked and add irrelevant topics to the message! 

Tuesday, February 7, 2017

QR Code Running Dictatio

Here is a great variation of a dictation which combines a running dictation on a much larger scale with QR codes. Bob Patrick and I did this activity last week with our Latin 1 with students with great success! I can absolutely take no credit for this activity, as I learned this from my colleagues Miriam Patrick and Rachel Ash, who discuss this on their blog - they in turn learned this from Meredith White, a wonderful CI Spanish teacher in our district last week.

The idea is essentially a scavenger hunt throughout the school. Students will scan QR codes, which will give them a sentence to write down as a dictation and will then give them a clue to the location of the next QR code. 

I will tell you up front that this activity takes much preparation on the front end, but once it is set into motion, you as the teacher simply facilitate or more specifically, observe!

Preparation
  1. Write a series of sentences in the target language like in any dictation. The sentences should form a story; 10-12 sentences are a good amount. NOTE - for this activity, I created sentences using already-known vocabulary which had been targeted, so these sentences served as another way to get in repetitions of these targeted words. One can still use this activity to introduce new vocabulary but there will be an additional step.
  2. Make a list of locations where you can place QR codes, e.g., drinking fountains, vending machines, pictures, backs of books, under chairs/desks, etc. It is up to you to determine the scope/magnitude of the area of this activity. Bob and I chose to keep it to just our building but with many varied locations.
  3. Write up these locations in the target language.
  4. Create an order in which students will go to each location.
  5. Assign each dictation sentence to a location AND with the next clue. It is up to you whether you wish to have students write down each sentence in order or for the sentence order to be scattered is up to you. Because my dictation sentences were using known vocabulary, I scattered the order for novelty.
  6. Write up a list of the order of clues (with each sentence, location of sentence, and location of next clue), because it will come in handy during the activity. My example.
  7. Using a QR Code Generator, type up the sentence and location of next clue. It is important that you use a QR Code Generator which will save text. Save that QR Code - be sure to remember where that QR Code falls in the order!
Example of QR Code - scan with QR Code reader to see embedded information



    8. Repeat step #7 for all remaining sentences and clues.
    9. Create a table to cut/paste the QR codes. Be sure to put the QR codes in order. My     
        example of QR table.
  10. Print QR Code table.
  11. Create dictatio handouts. Students will record their dictation on this handout. On the 
        dictatio handout, paste a QR Code. At the very beginning, students will scan the QR 
        code to receive the first sentence and to find the location of their next sentence. You 
        will need to create handouts with DIFFERENT QR codes so that students are not all 
        starting at the same location. My example.
 12. Cut the QR codes from the QR code table and tape them in the various locations.
 13. Print the dictatio handouts - do not collate! 
 14. Send an email to your faculty, notifying them of the activity, that students will be 
       running around the school, and to notify you of any student problems.

Activity
  1. Explain that students will be doing a dictatio but with QR codes.
  2. Tell students to divide into groups of 2-3. No groups of four! You may also create the groups if needed. It is important that at least one team member has a smartphone with a QR code reader. If students have the Snapchat app, then that has a QR Code reader.
  3. Hand each group their “team dictatio sheets” - every team member will get a dictatio sheet. For me, There were nine different dictatio sheets, each with a Roman numeral at top. For example, Team 1 had two members, so each member received a “Dictatio I” sheet, Team 2 has three members so each member will get a “Dictatio II” sheet.
  4. Students will scan QR code on their student document. It will send them to one of 8 places.
    • Each QR code will have a dictatio sentence AND a clue to the next sentence on it.
    • Students are to write the dicatio sentence IN LATIN which matches the number on their sheet, i.e. the sentences are not in order when they scan the QR code
    • The QR code will also tell students where to go for the next sentence.
5. If you are using this dictation activity to introduce new vocabulary, you will want to add
in a step where students come to you for the meaning of new words BEFORE they
head to their next clue.
6. When they get ALL dictatio sentences, students will return to the class to turn it in.
7. Explain that they are to be respectful of other classes and to be quiet in the hallways.
8. Begin the activity, and watch the fun!

Observations
  1. The search for QR codes made the activity very engaging for students. The activity became more about finding the QR codes than about the actual writing down of the dictation sentence. In other words, the dictation sentences became incidental, although they were receiving subconscious repetitions of comprehensible language in writing them down. The search kept the activity novel. As one of my students who tends to be "less engaged" in my class said: "This was SO much fun! Let's do this EVERY week." 
  2. Bob Patrick said it best: "This activity was a true communicative activity, because students were actually using the language to complete a task."
  3. To make the activity last longer, you can add a translation component where students have to translate the sentences prior to turning them in. Per Miriam Patrick, you can also have students write down the location clues on their dictation handouts.
  4. Bob and I limited our QR code locations to a certain area in our building (as it was the first time doing something like this). Students requested that they wanted to go to various parts of the school for the next time. 
  5. Students said that they really liked being able to copy down the sentences from their phones instead of having to write them down by listening to me repeat the sentence aloud three times - lol!
  6. The list of sentences, locations, and next clues will come in handy if students get out of order. You can redirect them if they get "lost."
As I said earlier, this activity takes a lot of preparation the first time you do it, because you will be learning how to put it together. Now that I have created one, the next time I do this, it will be much quicker to prepare.

Sunday, February 5, 2017

Presentations

I have added a new page to my blog which houses my conference presentations (beginning from June 2016). Each presentation has its own separate webpage, on which has handouts, the actual presentation, evaluation, and contact information. This page will be updated regularly as I present.

Creating a webpage for each presentation is something which I learned in my Instructional Technology classes. Quite honestly, it makes 100% sense to do something like this, because participants can now go to one place to find all of the necessary information from that presentation - no more asking if I can email them a copy of the handouts, PowerPoint, etc. Prior to a presentation, I can project the link to the website so that everyone is prepared before I begin. In addition, those who are unable to attend these presentations in person can view them.

Presentations page

Monday, January 23, 2017

Monster in the Closet - Movie Talk

Today, Bob Patrick and I are beginning Chapter 4 of Brando Brown Canem Vult. As always in lesson planning, I typed up the story in order to enter the chapter in an online frequency word counter so that I could see if there were any high frequency words which I need to pre-teach prior to the reading. If you know Chapter 4, it is the one where Brandon brings home the puppy for the first time and must hide it from his mother. In Chapter 4, there are A LOT of bedroom words, e.g., obdormit, evigilat, armarium, lectus, and a number of phrases, e.g., magnos sonos facit, multos sonos facit, ianuam aperit.

Once again, the Movie Talk database came to the rescue. When I did a search for the word "bed," I came across this short movie, and it fit perfectly for the words which I was wanting to pre-teach - it was as if this short movie had been created solely to preview many of the words for Chapter 4 of Brando Brown! 

The movie short is a Spanish film called El Monstruo en el Armario, or in Latin, "Monstrum in Armario." Even though there is some dialogue in Spanish, this version does have subtitles - I still ended up narrating the dialogue in Latin.

Below are two scripts which you can use - one in Latin, one in English.

Latin script

English script

Observations
  1. I found that this movie talk was a very easy one to ask questions which required responses more than just the basic circling questions/answers. I was able to ask many "what do you think" kinds of questions.
  2. In the Latin script, some may be surprised to see that I asked/rephrased sentences and questions as indirect statements. A traditionalist would state that indirect statements are "too difficult" for Latin 1 students and should be reserved for Latin 2 or even Latin 3. However, I have found that as long as you establish meaning for words like "do you think" by writing them on the board and use the indirect statement, probably most students will understand what you are saying. Again, our goal is comprehension. There is NOTHING but tradition which says that indirect statements cannot be used in Latin 1.
  3. In using an indirect statement, some students may ask why the verb form has changed. I will do a quick pop-up grammar, explaining that the structure needed a different form, but I will not go into a lengthy explanation about indirect statements. Usually, I will respond first, "Did you understand what i said?" and then go from there.
  4. Normally I will turn the sound down in a Movie Talk, but this one required sound when going through it due to the "sounds" which the man hears.
  5. Even though this is a 3-minute Movie Talk, I found that I was able to go for 35 minutes or so with this. 

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Technology in a CI Classroom

The following post is part of an ongoing series.

Last summer, I completed my Ed.S degree in Instructional Technology. For five semesters, balancing a full-time job and completing coursework was my life. At times, I still go through withdrawals of grad school and quite honestly, I constantly have to remind myself that I now have more than my Master's degree. I am very grateful for what I learned, because the program greatly opened my eyes to proper instructional technology implementation.

Now that some view me as a classroom technology "expert" (note the quotation marks implying large doubt on my end), one of the questions which I get asked is "What is the best technology to use in a CI classroom?" To be honest, I find myself struggling to respond, because although I am very aware of and well-versed in instructional technology use for the world language classroom, quite honestly, there is not much out there for the CI classroom. The problem lies in that most world language instructional technology implementation:
  1. focuses on delivery of incomprehensible input.
  2. focuses on forced output/production of language without the proper scaffolding needed.
  3. operates at a very low level of critical thinking. 
  4. serves more as a tool for student entertainment, rather than for student engagement.
  5. is merely acting as a substitution for the same activity which can be achieved identically without technology.
Another problem with proper instructional technology implementation is that so many times administrators and teachers place technology usage first (think 1:1 schools) and then as a result, curriculum and pedagogical knowledge must line up with the technology. The diagram below illustrates this:



In reality, technology implementation should be the complete opposite: One's pedagogical knowledge should serve as the standard, with curriculum and technology aligning with the pedagogy itself, as illustrated in the diagram below:



In other words, for a CI classroom, Comprehensible Input should drive our classrooms, not technology; technology should only be used to support the delivery of understandable messages.

Another problem with a reliance on placing technology implementation before both curriculum and pedagogical knowledge is that if one is not careful, technology has a very short shelf life. When focusing on technology as either substitution or entertainment and not as a tool for creating and engaging students in higher order thinking, then the novelty of that technology will wear off very quickly. Students will want to move onto the next new piece of technology for amusement. And why should they not, since this is how the teacher has modeled technology usage for them?  

In upcoming posts, I will address some various ways to implement technology in a CI classroom. I have already posted about Movie Talks and EdPuzzle, two wonderful tools to use for the delivery of understandable messages.

P.S. A few weeks ago, Krashen, Wang, and Lee published an article called The Potential of Technology in Language Acquisition. I highly recommend that you read it. In the article, the authors recommend the use of podcasts; implementing narrow listening activities; and using Movie Talks and the web tool Voice Thread as means for delivering understandable messages.